Osteoarthritis is a disease in which the degeneration and wear of the knee articular cartilage induce joint deformity and pain with accompanying proliferative change such as osteophyte formation. It is a major cause of chronic arthralgia and movement disorder in elderly people. In the future, the number of patients is expected to increase further due to the aging of the population. The patients are treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and hyaluronic acid (intra-articular injection). For the patients having trouble in daily life activity surgical therapy is sometimes chosen.
Cerebral infarction is a disease in which cerebral blood flow reduction following stenosis and obstruction of cerebral artery causes brain cell death due to deficiency of oxygen and nutrients. The nerve function of the necrotic part is lost, and neurological symptoms including hemiplegia and sensory disturbance appear. In the treatment of acute phase, cerebral protection therapy that protects the brain from cytotoxicity is performed together with thrombolytic therapy.
Heart failure is a disease in which deterioration of the heart function causes cardiac output reduction, peripheral circulation failure,and congestion of the lungs and the body venous system. Treatment of heart failure is roughly divided into relaxation of symptoms and improvement of prognosis, and various therapeutic agents are used according to each purpose.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis（ALS）
ALS is a disease in which selective degeneration / drop off of upper and lower motor neurons cause progressive muscular atrophy of the whole body. The incidence of ALS is common in the age group from 50’s to 70’s. As it progresses, upper limb dysfunction, gait disturbance, dysarthria, dysphagia and breathing disorder occur, but usually the function of consciousness and five senses is preserved. The disease progression is relatively fast, and patients die in a few years unless they use an artificial ventilator.
Tissue injury caused by various factors produces fever, edema, pain etc. transiently. This phenomenon is called acute inflammation and is closely related to tissue repair. On the other hand, sustained tissue injury leads to chronic inflammation and abnormal tissue repair (tissue remodeling) causes chronic pathological condition. It is considered that astaxanthin derivatives act on the process of chronic inflammation rather than acute inflammation. Therefore, unlike traditional anti-inflammatory drugs, astaxanthin derivatives are expected to become highly characteristic drugs ameliorating pathological condition of chronic diseases.